Releasing to Maven Central with Git on Windows

Originally I wanted to write about two problems. I think both were somehow related to interactions between Maven, Git and GPG on my Windows. But because I didn’t document it both on time, things got lost. So this will be only half of the story.

Short version? Don’t mix various gpg on your PATH. If you use Gpg4Win, prefer that one.

Switching to Git

When you start with Git, you’ll probably get lost often even when you get the basic ideas and read those intro manuals. There was no big deal about SVN coming from CSV, but Git is different beast altogether and definitely worth studying. For example, it may happen that your local master branch is ahead of remote master by hundreds of commits (the whole history really), while push is pushing just new commits… And you have no idea what you did first – and I bet there will be more surprises like this. (Little note, for me fetch didn’t work, but the second answer with rebase -p did. Don’t ask, I still have to study it. :-))

With just a few glitches like this I was reasonably afraid of my first release to Maven central with Java Simon on Git repository. But it was much smoother in the end, especially from Maven’s side. Credit to Maven this time, I remember its release plugin throwing bugs at me – and now it did its job with VCS I don’t understand yet.

GPG vs Git’s GPG

The problem I managed to write down is related to the fact, that I had Gpg4Win installed previously (for Maven Central requires signed artifacts) and Git brought another GPG with it too. So this is – obviously – kinda Windows specific.

First I needed to create my new GPG keys for signing artifacts going to Maven central, because for unknown reasons I elegantly deleted the .gnupg directory some time before. So you create the key with:

gpg --gen-key

And then you go to upload it:

gpg --keyserver hkp:// --send-keys 08XXXXXX

And there is this error:

gpg: sending key 081A513E to hkp server
gpg: system error while calling external program: No error
gpg: WARNING: unable to remove tempfile (out) `...\AppData\Local\Temp\gpg-515B3D\tempout.txt': No such file or directory
gpg: no handler for keyserver scheme `hkp'
gpg: keyserver send failed: keyserver error

It sounds like anything but the proper solution – your gpg did not find gpgkeys_* executables in the same directory. You can eventually Google it and there is some StackOverflow question too, but answers are various. This is the first strike of git-bash and my PATH settings. There is /bin/gpg, but you better use gpg from where it is installed:

/c/Program\ Files/GNU/GnuPG/gpg --keyserver hkp:// \
--send-keys 08XXXXXX

Fixing the PATH

Cleanest solution is to prefer Gpg4Win, so just put C:\Program Files\GNU\GnuPG to the first spot of your PATH – or at least anywhere before Git’s bin directory (which is also high on my list to prefer its commands before binaries from GnuWin32). If you have C:\Program Files\GNU\GnuPG\pub on the list too, bump it up as well. Or just check what Gpg4Win put onto your PATH and move that. Sorry for being a bit vague here – this happened to me with gpg.exe in GnuPG directory first, but now I have only gpg2.exe there and gpg.exe in pub sub-directory which was added to the PATH. This seems to be a change since 2.x versions of gpg or Gpg4Win.

You could – of course – just delete or rename /bin/gpg.exe. But after unplanned Git reinstall it would be there again. Proper order in PATH is important anyway, although I too feel much better when there are no colliding binaries.

GPG speaking different languages?

Is your GPG talking to you in native language and you want it English? Simply set LC_MESSAGES=C (Rapid Environment Editor recommended, use User Variables). Alternatively just delete GnuPG/share/locale directory 🙂 seems not to hurt anything.


I believe my other problem was also related to gpg, it was another twist on the PATH problem when running Maven – which uses gpg to sign those artefacts with keys you prepared. So the main advice still applies. Organize your PATH properly, preferably in Windows System Variables, as Git’s bash will translate it into UNIX format just fine. Also with proper system-wide PATH things will run properly in both cmd and bash, unless they are shell specific. For instance mvn clean release should work in both.

Git Bash strikes back? (edit 2014-10-05)

Fixing the path is nice, but not working – unless you run bash without git’s initialization. Try running just bash and check your path with echo $PATH. Then do the same with git bash (the difference is bash –login -i instead of just plain bash command). This sources not only .bashrc from your home, but also your .profile and (and here comes the blow) also c:\Program Files (x86)\Git\etc\profile (or similar depending on your installation). This is the file that does git bash from just plain bash, sets the prompt, etc. But it also adds couple of paths at the head of your original path – namely $HOME/bin, . (current dir), /usr/local/bin, /mingw/bin and /bin (three out of these 5 items don’t even exist in my case).

So yes, this actually renders my previous advice useless – but only for git bash! If you’re using cmd/bash you don’t need to change anything and you still have all your needs on your path in the proper order.

And what can you do about it in git bash? Fixing that global profile seems kinda crude, so you may prefix the PATH in your .profile with GnuPG path (again). Or delete that gpg.exe in git installation (talking about crude measures :-)).


About virgo47
Java Developer by profession in the first place. Gamer and amateur musician. And father too. Naive believer in brighter future. Step by step.

One Response to Releasing to Maven Central with Git on Windows

  1. Pingback: Making Windows 7/8 work again | Virgo's Naive Stories

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