Converting 96kHz 24-bit FLAC to OGG with ffmpeg

Lately my son Robin asked for Peter Gabriel’s song The Tower That Ate People in a car. I like OGGs, although recently it may have been pointless with MP3 patents being expired. But 15+ years ago it was an obvious choice for me, especially because most encoded MP3 files had also clearly cut out high frequencies and generally lower quality at the same bitrate. Again – not a problem I encountered with newer MP3s. But I stayed true to OGG and I honestly don’t need anything better than its Q7 level.

The song is on Peter’s OVO album but the version Robin likes is from Back to Front show in London. So I browsed it, played it and – all the songs were skipped. Darn! I knew it must be because of the quality being very high because the digital download, companion to the Blu-ray Deluxe Book Edition (yeah, I’m a fan), was in 96kHz for both FLAC and OGG. So I had to recode the OGG, or better FLAC to OGG in normal sample rate (44.1kHz).

FFmpeg for the rescue!

I previously transcoded OGGs to MP3 for a little radio that didn’t support OGGs (I never understand why this happens) and I was very satisfied with FFmpeg because when I can do something from a command line I prefer that. So today I downloaded Windows build of FFmpeg and tried to figure out the switches.

After some Googling I tried -codec:a libvorbis and it told me there is no such a codec. So I tried ffmpeg -codecs to find out what (and if) there is any OGG support. There was just vorbis decoder, so I tried that one. Then ffmpeg told me that it’s just experimental and I must add -strict -2 switch to enable it. It worked afterwards but the warning was strange so I investigated further.

The trouble was that the build from FFmpeg site did not have libvorbis compiled in. Every time you run ffmpeg it prints the configuration it was compiled with and mine didn’t show –enable-libvorbis in the output. It was by an accident I found out I’ve got ffmpeg also on my PATH – which was strange considered I didn’t put the downloaded version there. It was part of ImageMagick which I was pretty sure was installed using Chocolatey (most recommended!), I don’t even remember why. But now it came handy, because, behold, this one had libvorbis with it!

If you have Chocolatey already, just cinst -y imagemagick and then start a new console to find ffmpeg on your path. Or do it the hard way.

Those damn spaces!

I use spaces in the filenames, replacing them with underscores or something does not make much sense, not in 21st century I believe. I respect bash (and prefer it in Windows as well, as delivered by Git) and I consider myself more or less a power-user (more less than more I guess). I understand that long time ago text was the thing and objects were not. But all this white-space escaping is sometimes killing me. Just look at all the effort that went into escaping white-spaces – IFS, quoting, print0, etc.

Actually, using NUL character (print0) as a separator seems most logical but obviously it’s difficult to put it into plain text then. But plain text is so awkward to represent anything anyway (except for the actual text). I believe some richer environment where lists are true lists is the logical thing to have. I’m not hinting on PowerShell necessarily, not sure they have it right, but they tried to be progressive for sure.

When I quote the name containing spaces on the input it’s a single argument (let’s say $1). But when I use ffmpeg -i “$1″… in the script the program complains that the first word from the filename is not a valid name. I encountered this problem many times before, passing the arguments from a command line to the script and there to other commands. Today I learned that “${1}” is different from “$1”. I always used curlies only to separate name of a variable from potentially colliding surrounding. But the first one keeps $1 as a single parameter even for another executable called from a script. Handy. Not intuitive. And definitely not something you learn in this section, for instance.

If this was all more “object-oriented” (broader meaning) it would be a filename, String or even File object from the start all the way to where it should be used. Spaces would not matter.

Sample rate and unexpected “video” stream

Because the source flac file had sampling rate of 96kHz – and I suspected this was the main reason the car audio system didn’t play it – I wanted to resample the audio to more traditional CD quality. That’s what option -ar 44100 does. Because OGG seems to have a single sample format, I didn’t have to care about bringing 24bits down to 16.

But I was surprised that my OGG didn’t play in foobar2000 and loading it actually created two entries in a playlist. I checked the output of a command more carefully and noticed it also converted some JPEG image embedded in that FLAC to a “video” stream. Not interested, thank you, said I – and that’s what -vn (no video) switch does.

And the script is…

Add setting the quality of the output OGG and -y to overwrite the output (I experimented repeatedly, you may not want it, of course) and you get a script like this:

#!/bin/sh

ffmpeg.exe -i "${1}" -ar 44100 -vn -codec:a libvorbis -qscale:a 7 -y "${1%flac}ogg"

It only encodes one file. Last thing I wanted is to treat input arguments for a for loop, although I guess I could have used shift too. Anyway, the command is easy:

find . -name \*.flac -exec ./anything-to-ogg-44k1-q7.sh {} \;

I guess it doesn’t care about the input format as long as it recognizes it, hence the “anything”. Of course, ffmpeg can do much more – I just wanted to show one recipe, that’s all.

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Making Windows 7/8 work again

OK, kinda questionable title, as Windows somehow works after install (and reinstall). But I have some additional professional needs. I don’t want to edit system properties in a single line, I want proper command line – preferably bash – and when at it, I’d welcome many Unix text/file utils too. I want proper console that resizes, allows more than silly block-mode copy. I want alt-tab working properly and not disappearing after a while. Better basic editor.

I wrote about some of the stuff, but maybe someone will find it helpful concentrated in a single post.

I’m actually no tools freak, I don’t check the landscape for new fancy tools every now and then, so there may be better alternative (“better” can have many meanings though :-)). So let’s just go through the stuff I need to do with a fresh Windows installation. Some stuff is related to 7 or 8, but most applies for both.

Many of my needs come from my profession. I’ll omit Java, Gradle/Maven, TortoiseSVN and others, but I’ll name those that help me be productive in command line for instance.

Alt Tab working again (Win 7)

Depends whether you like it or not. I want Alt+Tab to display the application switcher and keep it that way. Because that’s how I switch faster. Aero Peek is function that displays the application – which is cool when you’re in doubt which of those many same icons is the one you want – but when you continue hitting Alt+Tab it just does not display the switcher anymore. That sucks. Hit the Start button (or WinKey) and write “performance”. One of the filtered options should be “Adjust the appearance and performance of Windows”. Go for that. In Visual Effects tab, there is long list of checkboxes. And you want to disable Enable Aero Peek. Never missed it actually.

Windows 8 adjustments

I’ll be swift here, as I have adjusted just a single installation so far. My biggest concern I remember – from those that are easy to fix – was the sticky corner (corner clip) when I used dual-head. When I move window from one monitor to the other, I slide on the top edge – and I stumble upon the edge of the screen here. Fix is easy, although you have to edit the registry.

And then there was Narrator on Win+Enter which I accidentally pressed here and there. Just delete the executable or disable it other way. It can’t be disabled in any normal way.

Browsers, more browsers

So this one is obvious. What you need Internet Explorer for? To download Firefox (Chrome, whatever), right? Then you may need some Web Developer extension, Firebug and you’re ready to go.

BTW: If for nothing else, then for funny bug that ruins my Google Drive document writing on Firefox every time… copy/paste works for a while and then suddenly it stops. Restart does not help, nothing seems to help. Chrome does not have this problem (or it didn’t manifest so far). Copy/paste on Google Drive is quite popular problem so it seems, I don’t care who’s “fault” it is here. Just one of those many funny things about current innovations. 😉

Notepad2 – what Notepad was supposed to be

No tabs, no complications, just Notepad. But with toolbar (should you want it) and some basic settings options. Better status line. That’s Notepad2. My biggest gripes with default Notepad are:

  • doesn’t work with unix newlines properly;
  • no reasonable support for various file encodings or re-coding.

Notepad2 does have these and some basic syntax highlight, newline conversion, regex search and more. Check FAQs to find out Notepad2’s position on some additional features. If it had hex editing, I’d probably never need anything else. For anything serious I use IntelliJ IDEA anyway.

Do you need a bigger gun? Go for Notepad++, Ultraedit, or whatever else, the list is way too long. What I like about Notepad2 is that it is exactly what I’d expect from Notepad – simple single document editor that doesn’t lack features you need way too often today – especially work with various encodings. Instead of reconfiguring apps to use this as a default editor, or associating file extensions, I simply replace both c:\windows\notepad.exe and c:\windows\system32\notepad.exe with this one. You need to claim the ownership and all this hardness, but it is well worth it.

Or you may try this BAT to do it (not sure how it works with domains, but you can’t screw anything except those notepad.exe binaries :-)). It uses notepad2.exe already copied into Windows directory which you have to do as Administrator:

REM run as admin
c:
cd \windows

takeown /f notepad.exe
icacls notepad.exe /grant %USERNAME%:F
copy notepad.exe notepad.exe.orig
copy notepad2.exe notepad.exe

takeown /f system32\notepad.exe
icacls system32\notepad.exe /grant %USERNAME%:F
copy system32\notepad.exe system32\notepad.exe.orig
copy notepad2.exe system32\notepad.exe

Total Commander

Or any other beast you like. I personally can’t get rid of these two-panel commanders. Bookmarks, tabs, many handy features (synchronize, multi-rename tool, built-in ZIP). I strip my Total Commander to hide F-buttons, toolbar, command line (right-arrow displays it) switch Quick Search to Letter only – and I’m ready to go.

Git

Ok, so I excluded SVN but here I come with Git – what is that? Well with Git for Windows you’ll get git bash – that is bash! And tons of useful Unix commands, though not all of course. So for the rest I go for…

GnuWin32

GnuWin32 contains tons of GNU tools ported for Windows. I don’t know the status of GnuWin64, but GnuWin32 works just fine on 64-bit system too. All packages neatly put their binaries into common bin directory, so a single PATH entry is enough.

Give some thought to your PATH order, I personally have git’s binaries before GnuWin32 because they are in some cases better integrated with its bash. But if you use also GnuPG, put it even before git.

Rapid Environment Editor

Talking about variables… I mentioned this one already some time ago. This is my hero for setting environment variables. Download it, use it, love it. It is handy to put all the *_HOME variables (JAVA_HOME, GRADLE_HOME, …) to System Variables and just reference them in PATH. And for bash usage it is handy to define HOME (for cd without arguments if for nothing else) in User Variables and set it to %USERPROFILE% – use variable of type Expandable String for that. Don’t forget to Save it (Ctrl+S as expected) and restart any program you expect using the stuff.

Real console, please!

And here I’m split a bit. I used Console2 for a long time, works fine, except it doesn’t maximize in Windows fashion. I also used ConEmu on another computer. Works fine, maximizes… but I didn’t work with it that hard like with Console 2. So I don’t know. ConEmu seems to have more features and more actively developed, so I’d check that one now. Both are far better than default cmd, where you – of course – can switch to bash, when you have it on path. For ConEmu, download something that extracts 7z – like 7-Zip – unless you go for MSI (whatever works better for you) or you install a packer plugin (WCX) to your Total Commander.

As for ConEmu settings (Win+Alt+P), you may want to make some changes:

  • First in Keys & Macro – Controls section disable Change prompt text cursor position, so we can make copy/paste work both from left mouse button select and from other programs too.
  • In Keys & Macro – Mark/Copy section for Text selection change the value to Always.
  • In Keys & Macro you may want to change Scroll buffer one page up/down from Ctrl+PgUp/Dn to Shift. It may be easier to find the functions if you sort the list by Description.

With these two I’m mostly ready.

Console with bash from Total Commander

BTW: I talked about Total Commander and Git Bash Here integration already – using Console 2. For ConEmu, let’s do it with editing your INI files – they will probably be in %USERPROFILE%\AppData\Roaming\GHISLER\. Just define your custom command in usercmd.ini (adjust paths of course, bash is in PATH already in my case):

[em_bash]
button=C:\work\tools\ConEmu\ConEmu.exe
cmd=C:\work\tools\ConEmu\ConEmu.exe
param=-cmd bash --login -i

And in wincmd.ini just use this command – I chose Ctrl+B shortcut:

[Shortcuts]
C+B=em_bash

Happy bashing.

Bashing who?

Obviously I’m no big Windows lover. I even hate it as a server platform. I love ssh to my boxes spitting commands on them. This is probably possible for Windows too, but actually not many people use it. I’m still waiting to meet good Windows administrator and enthusiast who will show me some meaning of Windows as a server. Combined with Java. Screw performance comparisons now, just talking about my life as an administrator or developer.

But I’m using Windows in my daily job as my desktop and I like many of the stuff. I don’t turn it into Linux (ok, bash, GnuWin…, but…), I don’t use virtual desktops (I loved them), or any advanced keyboard shortcut solutions. All these tools and adjustments are really rather elementary to me.

I like some of the Windows stuff (when I remove some other). So I don’t want to bash Windows. Installing and integrating all the things together is no doubt more demanding than a couple of apt-get commands Linux users are used to. But then, they often need to go through many configurations as well.

Cool stuff that works

Learn WinKey shortcuts. It really pays off. You may stun your boss when you tell them, “just press Win+Shift+Right to get it on the projector” (switching app between screens).

Pin your applications on the taskbar and start or switch to them using Win+number.

If you use localized keyboard a lot, learn AltGr shortcuts, at least the basic ones. When you need a single curly brace it is much faster to press AltGr+B than Alt+Shift, { and Alt+Shift again. Often these AltGr symbols are printed on the keyboard.

Windows 8?

Windows 8 is generally step in a wrong direction for (not only) me, but it has some interesting additions. While you can’t Alt+F4 after closing the last application to get Shutdown dialog anymore, you can use new Win+X (Power User Menu) and then just double tap U, U to do the same. And many, many more through this menu. There is more for sure, but generally Windows 8 rather does maximum to get into our way if we use the PC the old way (no touch display, etc.). Kinda shame.

I hope you found some of the tips and tools helpful. If you have your tricks and favourite tools, feel free to share them in comments! 🙂

Releasing to Maven Central with Git on Windows

Originally I wanted to write about two problems. I think both were somehow related to interactions between Maven, Git and GPG on my Windows. But because I didn’t document it both on time, things got lost. So this will be only half of the story.

Short version? Don’t mix various gpg on your PATH. If you use Gpg4Win, prefer that one.

Switching to Git

When you start with Git, you’ll probably get lost often even when you get the basic ideas and read those intro manuals. There was no big deal about SVN coming from CSV, but Git is different beast altogether and definitely worth studying. For example, it may happen that your local master branch is ahead of remote master by hundreds of commits (the whole history really), while push is pushing just new commits… And you have no idea what you did first – and I bet there will be more surprises like this. (Little note, for me fetch didn’t work, but the second answer with rebase -p did. Don’t ask, I still have to study it. :-))

With just a few glitches like this I was reasonably afraid of my first release to Maven central with Java Simon on Git repository. But it was much smoother in the end, especially from Maven’s side. Credit to Maven this time, I remember its release plugin throwing bugs at me – and now it did its job with VCS I don’t understand yet.

GPG vs Git’s GPG

The problem I managed to write down is related to the fact, that I had Gpg4Win installed previously (for Maven Central requires signed artifacts) and Git brought another GPG with it too. So this is – obviously – kinda Windows specific.

First I needed to create my new GPG keys for signing artifacts going to Maven central, because for unknown reasons I elegantly deleted the .gnupg directory some time before. So you create the key with:

gpg --gen-key

And then you go to upload it:

gpg --keyserver hkp://pool.sks-keyservers.net --send-keys 08XXXXXX

And there is this error:

gpg: sending key 081A513E to hkp server pool.sks-keyservers.net
gpg: system error while calling external program: No error
gpg: WARNING: unable to remove tempfile (out) `...\AppData\Local\Temp\gpg-515B3D\tempout.txt': No such file or directory
gpg: no handler for keyserver scheme `hkp'
gpg: keyserver send failed: keyserver error

It sounds like anything but the proper solution – your gpg did not find gpgkeys_* executables in the same directory. You can eventually Google it and there is some StackOverflow question too, but answers are various. This is the first strike of git-bash and my PATH settings. There is /bin/gpg, but you better use gpg from where it is installed:

/c/Program\ Files/GNU/GnuPG/gpg --keyserver hkp://pool.sks-keyservers.net \
--send-keys 08XXXXXX

Fixing the PATH

Cleanest solution is to prefer Gpg4Win, so just put C:\Program Files\GNU\GnuPG to the first spot of your PATH – or at least anywhere before Git’s bin directory (which is also high on my list to prefer its commands before binaries from GnuWin32). If you have C:\Program Files\GNU\GnuPG\pub on the list too, bump it up as well. Or just check what Gpg4Win put onto your PATH and move that. Sorry for being a bit vague here – this happened to me with gpg.exe in GnuPG directory first, but now I have only gpg2.exe there and gpg.exe in pub sub-directory which was added to the PATH. This seems to be a change since 2.x versions of gpg or Gpg4Win.

You could – of course – just delete or rename /bin/gpg.exe. But after unplanned Git reinstall it would be there again. Proper order in PATH is important anyway, although I too feel much better when there are no colliding binaries.

GPG speaking different languages?

Is your GPG talking to you in native language and you want it English? Simply set LC_MESSAGES=C (Rapid Environment Editor recommended, use User Variables). Alternatively just delete GnuPG/share/locale directory 🙂 seems not to hurt anything.

Conclusion

I believe my other problem was also related to gpg, it was another twist on the PATH problem when running Maven – which uses gpg to sign those artefacts with keys you prepared. So the main advice still applies. Organize your PATH properly, preferably in Windows System Variables, as Git’s bash will translate it into UNIX format just fine. Also with proper system-wide PATH things will run properly in both cmd and bash, unless they are shell specific. For instance mvn clean release should work in both.

Git Bash strikes back? (edit 2014-10-05)

Fixing the path is nice, but not working – unless you run bash without git’s initialization. Try running just bash and check your path with echo $PATH. Then do the same with git bash (the difference is bash –login -i instead of just plain bash command). This sources not only .bashrc from your home, but also your .profile and (and here comes the blow) also c:\Program Files (x86)\Git\etc\profile (or similar depending on your installation). This is the file that does git bash from just plain bash, sets the prompt, etc. But it also adds couple of paths at the head of your original path – namely $HOME/bin, . (current dir), /usr/local/bin, /mingw/bin and /bin (three out of these 5 items don’t even exist in my case).

So yes, this actually renders my previous advice useless – but only for git bash! If you’re using cmd/bash you don’t need to change anything and you still have all your needs on your path in the proper order.

And what can you do about it in git bash? Fixing that global profile seems kinda crude, so you may prefix the PATH in your .profile with GnuPG path (again). Or delete that gpg.exe in git installation (talking about crude measures :-)).

Git Bash Here in Console2 in Total Commander with keyboard shortcut (hotkey)?

Edit 13.8.2014: While still valid, I’d go for ConEmu now. See relevant section in this newer post to set up “bash here” from Total Commander using INI files.

Not sure whether I ever made longer title – but as I had to Google a lot about it and even wrote to Total Commander support email I decided to put it “on paper”. I wanted to press a keyboard shortcut to open Git Bash in Console2 (default window is just as terrible as “cmd”, marking, copying and pasting is just pure pain). Of course in current directory.

Because I have installed Cygwin as well and had it as a default shell for Console2, I decided to add a new tab configuration like this:

Main menu: Edit-Settings-Tabs-Add and then fill up things accordingly

Now the Total Commander part. While I googled a lot how to assign my custom command to a shortcut (hotkey) maybe I used different keywords, maybe I was just unlucky… I wrote to support in the end. Answer goes as this (thanks to Christian Ghisler):

  1. Go to menu Configuration – Options (you can get here with Alt-O twice) – Misc (last option in the list on the left)

  2. Choose your hotkey, I went for Ctrl+B (it doesn’t make any file “bold” I hope)

  3. Click on the small magnifying glass

  4. Click on usercmd.ini (all the way down)

  5. Click on New

  6. Choose a name, e.g. em_git_bash_here

  7. Click OK

  8. Enter the details (see lower)

  9. Click OK in all open dialogs

Here is screenshot of the settings in Total Commander:

Here the -t obviously chooses the tab you want to open and -d sets the initial working directory.

BTW: The last dialog is the same like for a custom button. I actually found a blog about how to add a custom button with Git Bash Here, but assigning it to a hotkey was another story. Also running it in Console2 was easier than it seemed from various internet resources. Many advices pointed to the Windows Registry – but I didn’t want that.

Total Commander itself is a bit tricky. Don’t get me wrong, I love it and that’s why I have bought it (way too late, but I have) and also could appreciate support (right to the point). But when you want to find that %P is “current directory” you better google it. Ctrl+F in the Help window (very good one actually) does not help, because “source path” does not contain neither “current” nor “directory” obviously. 🙂 With Internet at hand these are no problems at all.

BTW2: If you have your command in Total Commander named you can just reference it when you need it for button bar – don’t click on magnifying glass icon, just set Command value to “em_git_bash_here” (or however you named it) and you’re done.

Hope you made it with my procedure and my pictures. May the power of keyboard shortcuts (or hotkeys, whatever ;-)) be with you!